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How air conditioning works

control the thermal conditions determined by environmental variables and individual variables to enhance the quality of life. The balance between them determines our body’s apparent temperature and comfort level.

Temperature control

 Currently, the systems most widely used to control environmental variables are air conditioning systems. Fully controlling temperature, humidity and ventilation while caring for the environment has become the greatest current challenge of climate control companies.

Climate control

is the air treatment process in which air temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution are simultaneously controlled in order to respond to the needs of the air conditioned space.

Thermal comfort is understood to be the feeling of complete physical well-being from the viewpoint of balance in heat exchange. In a closed room there are four environmental factors that directly intervene in thermal comfort: air temperature, humidity, air movement and air purity.

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Temperature control

Air temperature is directly related to heat exchange between two bodies, in this case, between the air surrounding the individual and their skin. Adequate temperature control eliminates the effort of accommodation, achieving greater comfort and physical well-being.

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Humidity control

A large part of human body heat is dissipated by means of evaporation through the skin (sweat). If the humidity in a room exceeds certain levels there will not be a feeling of comfort.

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Air movement and circulation

Air currents intervene directly in the apparent temperature felt by the human body, so that the higher the air speed, the greater the heat transmission capacity and our sweating capacity increases.

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Air filtering, cleaning and purification

Air purity is achieved by renewing the air in the room and it is controlled by removing pollutant particles using filters or other devices and/or by means of ventilation.

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Cooling cycle

In the cooling cycle, a coolant circulates whose function is to reduce or maintain the temperature of a certain room below ambient temperature. To this end, the heat must be removed from the space we wish to cool and transferred to another body whose temperature is lower, passing through various states or conditions. Each of these changes is called “processes”.

 

The coolant starts with an initial state or condition, passes through a series of processes in accordance with a defined sequence and returns to its initial condition. The group of this series of processes is called “cooling cycle”. A simple cooling cycle is comprised of four basic processes.

 

Expansion

Initially, the coolant is in a liquid state in the outdoor unit at high pressure. It is necessary to transfer it to the indoor unit and, in order to achieve the cooling effect, it is sent through an expansion element. With this we achieve two things: reduce pressure and temperature of the liquid, leaving it in optimal operating conditions.

 

Evaporation

The liquid evaporates in the evaporator (inside the indoor unit), transferring cold to the air of the premises to be air conditioned (expelled by a fan). All the coolant evaporates in the evaporator, obtaining gas as a result.

 

Compression

This gas returns to the outdoor unit to become transformed into a liquid once again. The first step is to compress the gas. This operation is performed in the compressor, obtaining gas at high pressure.

 

Condensation

Vapour at high pressure circulates through the condenser. Heat is evacuated to the exterior and the coolant is obtained in the liquid state.